Bahasa Indonesia

Samples of Bahasa Indonesia books

The complex story of a simple language

During college I spent a summer in Indonesia, and naturally I picked up a bit of the language. When I say “the language,” I’m referring to Indonesian or, as it is known in Indonesian, Bahasa Indonesia (“language of Indonesia”). This statement is not as obvious as it may sound; Indonesia is home to hundreds of languages, and of these, Indonesian is not spoken as a first language by the majority of the population. But it is the lingua franca, so it’s useful for citizens and travelers alike. I found Indonesian to be straightforward and easy to learn, free of most of the irregularities and annoyances of the Romance languages.

What I understood at the time was that Indonesian is, for the most part, the same language as Malay (Bahasa Melayu), the national language of neighboring Malaysia. I assumed that there were some differences, but that the main one was simply the name. I had no idea at that time of how either version of the language came into existence. It turns out that there’s a bit of a modern myth about the language’s origin—but the truth is even more interesting.

Artificial Intelligence

While doing some research on an unrelated topic, I stumbled upon a webpage claiming that Indonesian was an artificial language. I’d never heard that before and it piqued my interest, so I dug further. A few minutes of web searches turned up quotes such as the following (identities omitted to protect the guilty):

Bahasa Indonesia is an artificial language made official in 1928. By artificial I mean it was designed by academics rather than evolving naturally as most common languages have.

…Indonesian [is] a very simple Malay-based artificial language, designed by academics, and was the official language for a multiethnic country of over 230 million inhabitants.

…Indonesian is a constructed language made by a Dutch missionary in the 1920s on the basis of synthesizing some local languages.

…[Indonesian] was devised by a Dutch linguist, based on various Malayan and Indonesian varieties…in the 1920s.

The language in Malaysia, Bahasa Malay, is a constructed language, and was designed to be easy to learn, as the various people in Malaysia and Indonesia who were told to form rather large nations after WWII needed a common language.

…every language is artificial—it just depends how many people create it. Bahasa Indonesia is also invented but by a group.

Bahasa Indonesia is essentially a constructed language designed to fool foreigners into thinking Indonesia is a monoculture.

…the other major semi-artificial language of recent times, Bahasa Indonesia, the national language of Indonesia, is a syncretic amalgamation of existing Malay dialects that were still in current use.

Even though it is basically the Malay language, [Indonesian] has in common with Esperanto…the fact of having underwent [sic] a kind of planned restructuration to simplify grammar and reduce exceptions.

With all that evidence, I was nearly convinced, though I wasn’t entirely certain what I was convinced of. This string of claims sounded a bit like the telephone game, where a message changes just a bit with each retelling. Then a little voice in the back of my head whispered, “Primary sources, Grasshopper.” Every fact on the web appears to be equally authoritative, but just because somebody says something with conviction doesn’t mean it’s true. So I went to an actual library (two of them, in fact) and looked at ancient documents known as “books”—some more than fifty years old—to see if I could get to the bottom of this story. After all, if a Dutch linguist (or missionary) did in fact invent the language, I should be able to find that person’s name. And if a committee of academics invented it, I should be able to find some record of that momentous project.

Let me cut to the chase: as with all myths, this one has a kernel of truth to it. But the claim that Indonesian is an “artificial” or “constructed” language is simply false.

This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is Island

Indonesia is an archipelago consisting of over 18,000 islands, of which about a third are inhabited. That these islands—and their greatly varying cultures and languages—should be considered a single nation is a relatively recent (and, ethnographically speaking, artificial) notion. Nevertheless, for centuries, traders sailing from one island to another have needed to communicate with each other. Malay was the local language of Malacca, a port town near the southern tip of the Malaysian peninsula. According to legend, local fisherman in Malacca developed Malay as a synthesis of several nearby languages in the late 16th century. However, written records of Malay date back as far as the 7th century, so it is more likely that the fisherman simply integrated new words into the language. (Such borrowing happens in virtually all languages, and the newly incorporated words are known as “loan words.”) In any event, Malacca was a hot spot for traders, and by the time the Dutch colonized Indonesia (then known as the Dutch East Indies) in the 17th century, Malay had already come into widespread use as the regional trade language.

During their more than three centuries of occupation, the Dutch, unsurprisingly, attempted to enforce the use of their own language for trade. In the process, Malay—as spoken in Dutch territory—picked up a number of Dutch loan words, while the Malaysian speakers of Malay developed a somewhat different vocabulary. Meanwhile, due to the influence of Islam, which had been introduced in Indonesia as far back as the 13th century, Malay also picked up a number of Arabic loan words. Because parts of Indonesia were Hindu, Sanskrit also gave numerous words to Indonesian—including “bahasa” (“language”). And since Portugal traded in Indonesia and for many years controlled East Timor, many Portuguese words also found their way into the language. In short: without question, the Indonesian variety of Malay did indeed borrow heavily from numerous other languages, but this was a natural linguistic evolution. However, there’s still more to the story.

The Language of Change

By the 1920s, public sentiment in Indonesia was turning strongly toward gaining independence from the Netherlands. In October 1928, the Sumpah Pemuda (Pledge of the Youth) proclaimed that in Indonesia, Malay was to be called “Bahasa Indonesia” and considered the national language. However, there being no nation as yet, this was more of a rallying cry than anything else. In 1945, Indonesia declared its independence from the Netherlands and stated in its constitution that Bahasa Indonesia was its official language—though it took four years of fighting before the Dutch acknowledged Indonesia’s right to self-rule. So depending on how you look at it, Indonesian became the official language in 1928, 1945, or 1949—though at that time, only a tiny percentage of the nation’s population spoke Indonesian as a first language.

Following independence, the people of Indonesia rapidly abandoned Dutch (to the extent that they had grudgingly adopted it) and began to embrace their new official tongue. It is now the first language of more than 40 million people, and a second language for over 150 million. Although these numbers are still small given Indonesia’s total population of more than 260 million, they represent astonishingly rapid growth for the language.

In 1972, the governments of Indonesia and Malaysia collaborated on a project to reform and simplify spelling for both versions of the language; this consisted largely of eliminating Dutch spellings in favor of more phonetic Malaysian spellings. Malay and Indonesian have about an 80% overlap in vocabulary and are mutually intelligible; the variations in vocabulary, pronunciation, and usage have been compared to the difference between American English and British English. Where Indonesian retains many Dutch loan words, Malay typically replaces these with words based on English.

I like Indonesian a great deal; it has such an elegant structure that it’s tempting to believe it could only have been made artificially. But in fact it’s as natural as the next language, notwithstanding its exceptional capacity for absorbing foreign vocabulary—and contributing to linguistic mythology.

Note: This is an updated version of an article that originally appeared on Interesting Thing of the Day on September 17, 2004.

Image credit: Laura Pro [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons

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Author: Joe Kissell

National Word Nerd Day

Entry in a dictionary

Today, January 9, is an important national holiday—it’s my birthday, which I share with such varied figures as Dave Matthews, J.K. Simmons, Kate Middleton, and Richard Nixon. It’s also National Word Nerd Day, which I find quite appropriate, in that I certainly consider myself a word nerd. Back in elementary school, my classmates used to tease me by accusing me of reading the dictionary for fun, but I didn’t understand what was supposed to be problematic about that. Of course I read the dictionary for fun! I love learning new words, discovering the origins of words and how they evolve, and exploring the way language works. That might have had a little something to do with why I studied linguistics in grad school, and why I became an author (and later, a publisher). Yep, I love words, and if you do too, add a few new ones to your vocabulary today. I can also recommend a book you might enjoy: Word by Word: The Secret Life of Dictionaries by former Merriam-Webster lexicographer Kory Stamper.

Image credit: Pixabay

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Author: Joe Kissell

At your own pace: The journey through the six emotional stages of divorce

A lot of
what is written about and discussed when looking at the emotional stages of
divorce and separation is based on the five stages of grief identified by the
psychiatrist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross back in 1969 in her book On Death and Dying.

And quite
rightly so. The end of a marriage or relationship is a bereavement: a loss of
the life you once had and of the future, you believed you would have.

There is
panic, denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. The first thing to
remember is that people do not move neatly from one stage to the next.
Sometimes you may experience all six in one day. You may find yourself stuck in
a certain stage or go back. There is no beginning, middle or end.

My advice, do not try to manage this process (it won’t work for a start) and instead move through at your own pace. There is no right or wrong way – just your way. And please do seek professional help if you are struggling with anxiety or depression from your GP.

Here are the
six stages:


Sheer panic
and fear. Your body and mind are in a state of shock, unable to comprehend that
your life as you know it has been changed forever. You may struggle to sleep,
eat and think straight. You may even have panic attacks as your mind becomes
flooded and you feel out of control.


In some
ways, denial is a useful coping mechanism. You can pretend everything is OK
rather than face the overwhelming emotions. However, don’t abuse the temporary safe
haven this gives you. You need to move to the next stage to face your fears.
You need to feel emotions to start to heal from them. Otherwise, they can
manifest in stress, anxiety and illness.


Anger is a
completely normal emotion in a stressful situation and this is the time to
release some of those emotions you suppressed in the denial phase.  My advice is let them out. Some people try to
bottle up their anger, but it will come out in other ways. Try to channel it
into something positive such as exercise, singing, yoga (anything you enjoy)
and do consider counselling for some professional advice.

there are two simple rules: never in front of your children and not publicly on
social media (it will come back to haunt you). 


Your last
attempt to try and get the relationship back on track and you will search for
anything that you think may take you both back to where you were before.

Moving away,
having a baby, changing who you are (totally impossible) you will do anything
to get your life back and have some reassurance that the relationship can be


As the
realisation that the relationship is over starts to settle extreme feelings of
sadness and loneliness can quickly consume you. They can easily take away your
motivation and joy for everyday life, you may find yourself sat in front of the
television all day with no energy to move or eat.

withdrawing from the world does not work and will leave you more isolated. Call
upon friends and family for love and support to help you cope. Counselling is
also really helpful. Talk, talk, talk, cry and then cry some more. You need to
feel and release your emotions.


You finally
feel hope, there is light at the end of the tunnel and you realise you need to
move on with your own life.

There will
still be feelings of sadness and regret, but it is something you can live with.
You are not paralyzed by grief or fear or sadness anymore.  And whilst I cannot promise you a joyful skip
off into the sunset you are back, getting on with life and starting a new
beginning. You’ve got this.

Help & support

Finding the
right lawyer for you can make all the difference. Our divorce lawyers have
experience of advising clients throughout the divorce process. They understand
the emotional pressure that each stage brings and can support you by making the
legal side as simple as possible.

through a divorce or separation can be extremely tough. If you find your
struggling with anxiety and / or depression, please do seek professional help
from your GP or visit: Relate
for practical advice and counselling options.

The post At your own pace: The journey through the six emotional stages of divorce appeared first on Stowe Family Law.

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Author: Stowe Family Law

Is 455 divorce petitions in a week a lot?

It was widely reported the other day that, according to the Ministry of Justice (‘MoJ’), 455 people made an online divorce application in the period between Christmas Eve and New Year’s Day, with 13 applying on Christmas Day itself. The figure of 455 sounds quite shocking (as I suspect the newspaper headline writers meant it to be), but is it actually a lot?

To answer the question we need to look at a few more figures from the MoJ.

According to the latest Family Court Statistics Quarterly, for July to September 2018, 115,392 divorce petitions were filed during the period October 2017 to September 2018, the most recent full year for which figures are available. If that figure is divided by 52 weeks, we find that during that year an average of some 2,220 divorce petitions were filed each week.

On that basis, the figure of 455 seems quite low, representing roughly a fifth of the number of petitions filed in an ‘average’ week.

Now, of course there is an obvious problem with this: many divorce petitions are still filed by post (solicitors do not yet have access to the online portal), and so we are not comparing like with like.

OK, so it would be better to look at the figures for online applications. The MoJ has stated that “more than 23,000 applications for divorce have been made online since the service was launched last April”. Now, my rough calculation is that that equates to an average of about 700 online divorce applications per week.

So even on that basis 455 is quite low, representing only about two-thirds of the number of online applications made in an average week.

I suppose it might be said that 455 is still high, considering that people are supposed to be doing other things during the Xmas/New Year holiday. On the other hand, it could be said that as many people were off work during that week, more would have had time to file a divorce application, and therefore one might expect more applications to be filed.

Whatever, I don’t think too much can be read into these figures. It was certainly not an exceptional week for people making online divorce applications, or even for people seeking a divorce at all.

And what of those thirteen people who decided to apply for a divorce on Christmas Day?

Well, I can see that it is quite sad to think of people filing for a divorce on a day when most of us are celebrating with our families. But then it is a sad fact that not everyone enjoys a happy Christmas. In fact, for those who don’t, Christmas can be the most depressing time of the year. Thirteen people applying for a divorce is actually a tiny figure when one considers, for example, how many people spend Christmas alone.

It is also a tiny figure by reference to that figure of 700 online divorce applications per week mentioned above, which obviously represents an average of 100 per day. If anything one would expect considerably more than thirteen divorce applications to have been made on Christmas Day.

Why does all of this matter? Well, it feeds into the narrative that more people seek a divorce at this time of year than at any other time – the ‘Divorce Day’ myth. Even The Guardian, a ‘serious’ newspaper, told us in its story about the figures that:

“The first full week of the new year is one of the busiest periods for initiating divorce proceedings, as unhappy couples, having failed to resolve their differences over Christmas, resort to specialist lawyers.”

Of course, the lawyers are not the ‘villains’ when it comes to people applying for a divorce without a lawyer and from the comfort of their own homes, but that is a point that is conveniently ignored. The fact, however, is that these figures do not demonstrate that we are presently witnessing an epidemic of people seeking a divorce. On the contrary, they are substantially less than usual and, I think, nothing out of the ordinary.

The post Is 455 divorce petitions in a week a lot? appeared first on Stowe Family Law.

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Author: John Bolch


A sinkhole in Duluth, Minnesota in 2011

Losing ground

As a California resident, I have experienced my fair share of earthquakes. They’re unsettling (literally and figuratively), and yet they’re something we have all come to accept as a normal occurrence in this part of the world. We like the climate, the views, the culture—in other words, the whole vibe of the area—and we simply accept that it has its…faults. We stockpile emergency supplies, buy earthquake insurance, perform seismic retrofitting on our buildings to reduce the risk of damage, and then go on with our lives. Each time a truly devastating earthquake hits—such as the great San Francisco quake in 1906 or the Loma Prieta quake in 1989—we learn some important new lessons, and soon thereafter feel much safer about the future.

Sometimes that safety is illusory. For example, on December 11, 1995, the ground moved in a very small area of San Francisco’s Seacliff neighborhood, swallowing Howard Billman’s $1.5 million house (which, back in those days, would have been considered a very expensive property—a mansion, in fact). In this case, however, the cause was not an earthquake, but a giant sinkhole measuring 200 feet (60m) across and 40 feet (12m) deep. Sometimes sinkholes are natural occurrences; in this case, however, the culprit was an old sewer tunnel that had deteriorated. The tunnel itself, of course, was much smaller than the resulting hole. That bit of surprising geometry is just one of the things I find interesting about sinkholes. The mechanisms by which they form, and the abruptness with which they appear—often without warning, and in seemingly unlikely areas—make them even more fascinating, in a rather grim way.

Feeling Depressed and Empty?

Generally speaking, a sinkhole is a depression in the ground formed when the top layer of earth collapses into an empty space below—a process also called subsidence. (If there were no empty spaces—only layers of earth, rock, sand, and water—the ground would remain solid.) The natural question is where those cavities came from in the first place, and the usual answer is that they were always there—unnoticed until the ceiling of stone above them gave way. So what causes a layer of stone to collapse?

Sinkholes are most often found in areas where the bedrock is limestone or another relatively porous stone. Water can dissolve limestone—especially if the water is slightly acidic (due to natural or artificial causes). If acidic groundwater seeps through small cracks in a layer of limestone and into an empty cavity beneath, it can carry away the dissolved rock; the cracks eventually become wide enough that the entire layer weakens and caves in. This type of process is responsible for many of the sinkholes found in Florida and Texas.

Throwing Out the Basement with the Bathwater

But sinkholes can occur for other reasons too. In some cases, the loss of groundwater (due to pumping for municipal water supplies, say) creates new cavities large enough and near enough to the surface that sinkholes result, even though the soil or rock above the cavity was not compromised. Even more interesting, though, is the way damaged sewer pipes or other tunnels, such as the one in Seacliff, create massive underground cavities. In a typical scenario, an old sewer pipe fills to capacity after a rain storm, and due to a blockage or collapse, begins leaking excess water into the surrounding soil. When the water begins to recede, it drains back into the sewer pipe, but now saturated with minerals that have eroded from the adjacent areas. Repeat this process often enough, or with a large enough volume of water, and the empty spaces formed where the soil has eroded away become large enough to turn into sinkholes.

Yet another cause of sinkholes is salt mining—though not always for the reason you might think. Abandoned salt mine shafts can and do collapse, but some sinkholes have a more indirect cause. In Cheshire, England in the late 1800s, salt was produced in great quantities by drying brine that was pumped out of the ground. This brine was a saturated salt solution that had formed by the contact of groundwater with layers of rock salt over many years. Because the solution was saturated, it could not cause further erosion of the salt, and therefore left in place naturally occurring salt pillars that supported the earth above. However, salt producers pumped out the brine so quickly and recklessly that the salt concentration began to decrease rapidly as fresh groundwater came in. The fresh water quickly absorbed the salt that formed the supporting pillars, and the ground collapsed, forming a great many sinkholes. But because the sinkholes were located far from the sites where the pumping took place (in some cases, several miles away), it was impossible for people who had lost their homes to the subsidence to pin the blame on any particular salt producer.

None of this is in any way reassuring. Regardless of the geological and topographical features of the ground you’re walking on, there’s always the chance that some unknown empty space—whether natural or artificial—lurks below, waiting to envelop you in a sinkhole on your very next step. It happens with tragic frequency, though usually not on a scale sufficient to merit widespread attention. But then, you can’t really prepare for a sinkhole the way you prepare for an earthquake, so maybe ignorance is bliss.

Note: This is an updated version of an article that originally appeared on Interesting Thing of the Day on December 2, 2004.

Image credit: KiwiDandy [Public Domain], via Flickr

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Author: Joe Kissell

Earth’s Rotation Day

The Foucault pendulum at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco

Yes, I’m aware: the Earth rotates all day, every day. But on this date in 1851, Léon Foucault proved it scientifically by setting his eponymous pendulum in motion in Paris. You can see replicas of this pendulum in science and natural history museums all over the world. They’re kind of boring to watch, as they very slowly change direction and periodically knock over little pegs. But that subtle change in direction would occur only if the Earth is rotating. This simple invention was and remains a brilliant demonstration of what to many of us is a self-evident truth.

Image credit: BrokenSphere [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], from Wikimedia Commons

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Author: Joe Kissell

Why you should consider a prenuptial agreement

The holidays are now behind us and the New Year is here. There is no better time than now to consider ways to protect yourself and your finances. When it comes to romantic conversations, nothing is less romantic than talking about including a prenuptial agreement in a marriage. However, the benefits of a prenup can be tremendous, making it a vital topic to discuss.

Whether it is due to the mentality of “millennials” or the looming rate of divorce floating around 50 percent, prenuptial agreements are growing in popularity. Despite them having a bad rep, prenups are sought by and entered into by couples of all walks of life. These marital agreements are not just for the rich and famous, but rather, they are for any couple seeking to protect their finances and property.

In addition to helping protecting assets, prenuptial agreements are also beneficial if a divorce were to occur. The dissolution process can be long and messy. However, a prenuptial agreement can help ease the process by outlining and detailing property division. By having this contentious divorce issue sorted out, divorcing couples can often avoid major disputes.

Even when a relationship is filled with trust and there is little property of concern, a prenuptial agreement can have its place in any marriage. Those considering this marital agreement should take the time to explore their options and understand what steps to take to best protect their rights and interests. No one gets married expecting the union to end in a divorce, but, when it does, a prenup can help address many divorce issues.

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Author: On behalf of Katie L. Lewis of Katie L. Lewis, P.C. Family Law

Lief v. Superior Court (Nissan)

(California Court of Appeal) – Held that the family court should not have issued an order allowing a man’s ex-wife to relocate with their minor child to Israel before expiration of a 30-day statutory stay. Granted a writ petition.

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The reality behind Divorce Day

The media-friendly term ‘Divorce Day’ does not sit well with me.

The first working Monday of January is frequently reported in the press as the day that divorce lawyers see a spike in enquiries as marriages meltdown across the country because of the pressures of Christmas.

Granted we do notice a spike here at Stowe Family Law in enquiries in January but then we also do in September after the school holidays, so it is not just tied to the pressure of Christmas.

I know too well that holidays can be stressful, highlighting tensions and unresolved issues. Most parents today work so weeks fly by, heads down, carry on. On holiday you look up and, in some cases, see the cracks.

But is this the moment that drives people to separate: an argument about the in-laws interfering, lack of presents or sheer exhaustion?

For me, it was so much more than that. I did not decide to leave my partner of 20 years because it was Christmas. I just knew that I had to survive Christmas, not just for my children but also for my wider family. Just like I knew I had to survive the summer holiday because the kids were so excited.

The decision to end a long-term relationship or a marriage cannot be tied down to a season or a holiday or the mother-in-law. It is so much bigger than that and runs so much deeper than that.

Separating is not just about the couple: you must think about the kids, the family, your friends, schools, the house, the garden, the expectations… And that takes a lot of time to think through.

So, this Divorce Day, let’s think for a moment about the couples behind the statistics. The ones that have painted on the smile for too long, the ones that haven’t, the ones who had the affair, the ones that didn’t, the ones where there was no drama, but they simply fell out of love.

These people are not just enquiry numbers. And I don’t believe that having a Divorce Day paints a true picture of the lives behind the statistics.

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Author: Stowe Family Law

The myth that there is no ‘law’ in family law

At the end of my post here last Friday I mentioned briefly a story in the Law Society Gazette reporting that a former police officer who has set up a website linking the public with McKenzie friends has said that it is an ‘irrebuttable truth’ that family law does not need lawyers.

Apparently, the website “will link up around 100 former police officers acting as McKenzies with members of the public”. Quite why former police officers should be well qualified for the task of assisting family law litigants whereas family lawyers are surplus to requirements, I’m not sure. Perhaps it follows from the linked idea, also expressed on behalf of McKenzie friends, that family law is simply about common sense, a quality that maybe former police officers are believed by the public at large to possess.

Whatever, the idea that there is no ‘law’ in family law is nothing new. I remember it being mentioned way back when I was studying law, with students of other legal topics snobbishly suggesting that family law was an ‘easy option’ that did not test the grey matter in the same way that their more complex subjects did (in fact, I suspect that many of those who said this would not have lasted five minutes at the coalface of practising family law). I didn’t engage in the argument myself (I did study family law, but it was not until later that family law became my path), but I suspect that it irritated those who did intend to become family lawyers.

So is there any truth in the idea?

Well, it is certainly true that in practice much of family law is little more than common sense (I think, for example, of deciding upon arrangements for children following the separation of their parents), but the same can be said for other areas of law (and, indeed, many areas of human endeavour). After all, for example, lay people are tasked as jurors or lay magistrates to decide criminal cases, using little more than their own common sense. And even the interpretation of a term in some complicated contractual dispute may in the end boil down to the application of a dose of common sense.

But if common sense is used in the making of decisions, the decision-making process is, of course, guided by a legal framework. And that is as true of family law as it is of any other area of law.

Take, for example, financial remedy proceedings following divorce. A judge dealing with a financial remedy application is not free to simply come to whatever decision they see fit. They must be guided by the legal framework. That begins by a consideration of the factors that they are required to take into account by section 25 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973. But that is just the beginning of the process. Parliament specifically left section 25 ‘vague’, in the sense that it does not tell the court exactly what it must do in a given set of circumstances. Accordingly, in the 45-odd years since the Act was passed the courts have had to interpret section 25. This has led to the creation of a huge and ever-changing body of case law that must be learned by family lawyers.

Of course not all of that case law applies to every case, and yes, some cases are quite straightforward to decide. But if you do not have a legal training, how do you know that a given case requires little consideration of the law?

But the actual law is only part of it. On top of the law comes the procedure, and that can be every bit as complex as the law itself. A huge part of being a family lawyer is knowledge of the relevant procedure. In fact, many cases turn not on the interpretation of the law itself, but on the interpretation of the rules governing the procedure applicable to the case. Go into family litigation without a knowledge of the procedure at your own risk.

In short, the idea that there is no ‘law’ (and by that I include legal procedure) in family law is a common misconception, and one that is obviously going to be attractive to non-lawyers seeking to make money out of those unfortunates who can’t afford a lawyer and are no longer able to get legal aid. It is a myth, and a dangerous one, that could easily lead to misinformed litigants failing to achieve the outcomes that they seek, or even that they are entitled to.

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Author: John Bolch